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Planet NUUG

September 07, 2023

Petter Reinholdtsen

«underordnet tjenestemann blir inhabil fordi en overordnet er inhabil».

Medlemmene av Norges regjering har demonstert de siste månedene at habilitetsvureringer ikke er deres sterke side og det gjelder både Arbeiderpartiets og Senterpartiers representater. Det er heldigvis enklere i det private, da inhabilitetsreglene kun gjelder de som jobber for folket, ikke seg selv. Sist ut er utenriksminister Huitfeldt. I går kom nyheten om at Riksadvokaten har konkludert med at nestsjefen i Økokrim kan behandle sak om habilitet og innsidekunnskap for Huitfeldt, på tross av at hans overordnede, sjefen for Økokrim, har meldt seg inhabil i saken. Dette er litt rart. I veilednigen «Habilitet i kommuner og fylkeskommuner» av Kommunal- og regionaldepartementet forteller de hva som gjelder, riktig nok gjelder veiledningen ikke for Økokrim som jo ikke er kommune eller fylkeskommune, men jeg får ikke inntrykk av at dette er regler som kun gjelder for kommune og fylkeskommune:

«2.1 Oversikt over inhabilitetsgrunnlagene

De alminnelige reglene om inhabilitet for den offentlige forvaltningen er gitt i forvaltningsloven §§ 6 til 10. Forvaltningslovens hovedregel om inhabilitet framgår av § 6. Her er det gitt tre ulike grunnlag som kan føre til at en tjenestemann eller folkevalgt blir inhabil. I § 6 første ledd bokstavene a til e er det oppstilt konkrete tilknytningsforhold mellom tjenestemannen og saken eller sakens parter som automatisk fører til inhabilitet. Annet ledd oppstiller en skjønnsmessig regel om at tjenestemannen også kan bli inhabil etter en konkret vurdering av inhabilitetsspørsmålet, der en lang rekke momenter kan være relevante. I tredje ledd er det regler om såkalt avledet inhabilitet. Det vil si at en underordnet tjenestemann blir inhabil fordi en overordnet er inhabil.»

Loven sier ganske enkelt «Er den overordnede tjenestemann ugild, kan avgjørelse i saken heller ikke treffes av en direkte underordnet tjenestemann i samme forvaltningsorgan.» Jeg antar tanken er at en underordnet vil stå i fare for å tilpasse sine konklusjoner til det overordnet vil ha fordel av, for å fortsatt ha et godt forhold til sin overordnede. Men jeg er ikke jurist og forstår nok ikke kompliserte juridiske vurderinger. For å sitere «Kamerat Napoleon» av George Orwell: «Alle dyr er like, men noen dyr er likere enn andre».

Sep 07, 2023 07:10

August 29, 2023

NUUG Foundation

ISOC Norge session on cryptography

Experts in applied cryptography will discuss current practices, including key management and quantum key cryptography

Aug 29, 2023 18:06

August 27, 2023

Peter Hansteen (That Grumpy BSD Guy)

Goodness, Enumerated by Robots. Or, Handling Those Who Do Not Play Well With Greylisting

SMTP email is not going away any time soon. If you run a mail service, when and to whom you present the code signifying a temporary local problem code is well worth your attention.

SMTP email is everywhere and is used by everyone.

If you are a returning reader, there is a higher probability that you run a mail service yourself than in the general population.

This in turn means that you will be aware that one of the rather annoying oversights of the original and still-current specifications of the SMTP based mail system is that while it's straightforward to announce which systems are supposed to receive mail for a domain, specifying which hosts would be valid email senders was not part or the original specification at all.

Any functioning domain MUST have at least one MX (mail exchanger) record published via the domain name system, and registrars will generally not even let you register a domain unless you have set up somewhere to receive mail for the domain.

But email worked most of the time anyway, and while you would occasionally hear about valid mail not getting delivered, it was a rarer occurrence than you might think.

Then a few years along, the Internet grew out of the pure research arena and became commercial, and spam started happening. Even in the early days of spam it seems that a significant subset of the messages, possibly even the majority, was sent with faked sender addresses in domains not connected to the actual senders.

Over time people have tried a number of approaches to the problems involved in getting rid of unwanted commercial and/or malware carrying email. If you are interested in a deeper dive into the subject, you could jump over to my earlier piece Effective Spam and Malware Countermeasures - Network Noise Reduction Using Free Tools.

Two very different methods of reducing spam traffic were originally formulated at roughly the same time, and each method's adherents are still duking it out over which approach is the better one.

One method consists simply of implementing a strict interpretation of a requirement that was already formulated in the SMTP RFC at the time.

The other is a complicated extension of the SMTP-relevant data that is published via DNS, and full implementation would require reconfiguration of every SMTP email system in the world.

As you might have guessed, the first is what is commonly referred to as greylisting, where we point to the RFC's requirement that on encountering a temporary error, the sender MUST (RFC language does not get stronger than this) retry delivery at a later time and keep trying for a reasonable amount of time.

Spammers generally did not retry as per the RFC specifications, and even early greylisting adopters saw huge drop in the volume of spam that actually made it to mailboxes.

On the other hand, end users would sometimes wonder why their messages were delayed, and some mail administrators did not take well to seeing the volume of data sitting in the mail spool directories grow measurably, if not usually uncontrollably, while successive retries after waiting were in progress.

In what could almost almost appear as a separate, unconnected universe, other network engineers set out to fix the now glaringly obvious omission in the existing RFCs.

A way to announce valid senders was needed, and the specification that was to be known as the Sender Policy Framework (SPF for short) was offered to the world. SPF offered a way to specify which IP addresses valid mail from a domain were supposed to come from, and even included ways to specify how strictly the limitations it presented should be enforced at the receiving end.

The downsides were that all mail handling would need to be upgraded with code that supported the specification, and as it turned out, traditional forwarding such as performed by common mailing list software would not easily be made compatible with SPF.

The flame wars over both methods. You either remember them or should be able to imagine how they played out.

And while the flames grew less frequent and generally less fierce over time, mail volumes grew to the level where operators would have a large number of servers for outgoing mail, and while the site would honor the requirement to retry delivery, the retries would not be guaranteed to come from the same IP address as the original attempt.

It was becoming clear to greylisting practitioners that interpreting published SPF data as known good senders was the most workable way forward. Several of us already had started maintaining nospamd tables (see eg this slide and this), and using the output of

$ host -ttxt domain.tld

(sometimes many times over because some domains use include statements), we generally made do. I even made a habit of publishing my nospamd file.

As hinted in this slide, smtpctl (part of the OpenSMTPd system and in your OpenBSD base system) now since OpenBSD 6.3 is able to retrieve the entire contents of the published SPF information for any domain you feed it.

Looking over my old nospamd file during the last week or so I found enough sedimentary artifacts there, including IP addresses for which there was no explanation and that lacked a reverse lookup, that I turned instead to deciphering which domains had been problematic and wrote a tiny script to generate a fresh nospamd on demand, based on fresh SPF lookups on those domains. The list of domains fed to the script is available here, but please do edit to suit your local needs.

For those wary of clicking links to scripts, it reads like this:

domains=`cat thedomains.txt`
operator="Peter Hansteen <peter@bsdly.net>"

echo "##############################################################################################">$outfile;
echo "# This is the `hostname` nospamd generated from domains at $generatedate. ">>$outfile;
echo "# See https://bsdly.blogspot.com/2018/11/goodness-enumerated-by-robots-or.html for some">>$outfile;
echo "# background and on why you should generate your own and not use this one.">>$outfile;
echo "# Any questions should be directed to $operator. ">>$outfile;
echo "##############################################################################################">>$outfile;
echo >>$outfile;

for dom in $domains; do 
 echo "processing $dom";
 echo "# $dom starts #########">>$outfile;
 echo >>$outfile;
 echo $dom | doas smtpctl spf walk >>$outfile;
 echo "# $dom ends ###########">>$outfile;
 echo >>$outfile;

echo "##############################################################################################">>$outfile;
echo "# processing done at `date`.">>$outfile; 
echo "##############################################################################################">>$outfile;

echo "adding local additions from $locals";
echo "# local additions below here ----" >>$outfile;
cat $locals >> $outfile;

If you have been in the habit of fetching my nospamd, you have been fetching the output of this script for the last day or so.

What it does is simply read a prepared list of domains, run them through smtpctl spf walk and slap the results in a file which you would then load into the pf configuration on your spamd machine. You can even tack on a few local additions that for whatever reason do not come naturally from the domains list.

But I would actually recommend you do not fetch my generated data, and rather use this script or a close relative of it (it's a truly trivial script and you probably can create a better version) and your own list of domains to generate a nospamd tailored to your local environment.

The specific list of domains is derived from more than a decade of maintaining my setup and the specific requests for whitelisting I have received from my users or quick fixes to observed problems in that period. It is conceivable that some domains that were problematic in the past no longer are, and unless we actually live in the same area, some of the domains in my list are probably not relevant to your users. There is even the possibility that some of the larger operators publish different SPF information in specific parts of the world, so the answers I get may not even match yours in all cases.

So go ahead, script and generate! This is your chance to help the robots generate some goodness, for the benefit of your users.

In related news, a request from my new colleagues gave me an opportunity to update the sometimes-repeated OpenBSD and you presentation so it now has at least some information on OpenBSD 6.4. You could call the presentation a bunch of links in a thin wrapper of advocacy and you would not be very wrong.

If you have comments or questions on any of the issues raised in this article, please let me know, preferably via the (moderated) comments field, but I have also been known to respond to email and via various social media message services.

Update 2018-11-11: A few days after I had posted this article, an incident happened that showed the importance of keeping track of both goodness and badness for your services. This tweet is my reaction to a few quick glances at the bsdly.net mail server log:

The downside of maintaining a 55+ thousand entry spamtrap list and whitelisting by SPF is seeing one of the whitelisted sites apparently trying to spam every one of your spamtraps (see https://t.co/ulWt1EloRp). Happening now. Wondering is collecting logs and forwarding worth it?
— Peter N. M. Hansteen (@pitrh) November 9, 2018
A little later I'm clearly pondering what to do, including doing another detailed writeup.
Then again it is an indication that the collected noise is now a required part of the spammer lexicon. One might want to point sites at throwing away outgoing messages to any address on https://t.co/3uthWgKWmL (direct link to list https://t.co/mTaBpF5ucU - beware of html tags!).
— Peter N. M. Hansteen (@pitrh) November 9, 2018
Fortunately I had had some interaction with this operator earlier, so I knew roughly how to approach them. I wrote a couple of quick messages to their abuse contacts and made sure to include links to both my spamtrap resources and a fresh log excerpt that indicated clearly that someone or someones in their network was indeed progressing from top to bottom of the spamtraps list.
I ended up contacting their abuse@ with pointers to the logs that showed evidence of several similar campaigns over the last few days (the period I cared to look at) plus pointers to the spamtrap list and articles. About 30m after the second email to abuse@ the activity stopped.
— Peter N. M. Hansteen (@pitrh) November 10, 2018
As the last tweet says, delivery attempts stopped after progressing to somewhere into the Cs. The moral might be that a list of spamtraps like the one I publish might be useful for other sites to filtering their outgoing mail. Any activity involving the known-bad addresses would be a strong indication that somebody made a very unwise purchasing decision involving address lists.

Update 2019-08-07: Gmail seems to be stuck on considering bsdly.net mail spam these days. If you are using a Google-attached mail service and have not received mail you were expecting from me, please check your spam folder and if you find anything, please use the "Report as not spam" feature.

Update 2019-08-07: Updated script and generated file comment with encouragement to generate your own nospamd based on local needs, included link to the list used for the last generate-nospamd run.

by Peter N. M. Hansteen (noreply@blogger.com) atAug 27, 2023 19:03

August 26, 2023

NUUG news

Støtteerklæring til Datatilsynet

NUUG (Norwegian Unix User Group) er opptatt av å beskytte individets privatsfære og personlige integritet i den digitale tidsalderen. Vi anerkjenner viktigheten av å regulere og overvåke bruken av persondata, spesielt når det kommer til adferdsbasert markedsføring på plattformer som Facebook og Instagram.

Datatilsynets beslutning om å legge ned midlertidig forbud mot adferdsbasert markedsføring på Facebook og Instagram i Norge er et viktig skritt for å beskytte norske borgere mot uønsket overvåkning og profilering. Dette tiltaket er i tråd med prinsippene om personvern og datasikkerhet som vi, en forening som støtter fri programvare og åpne standarder, har kjempet for i mange år.

Vi mener at Datatilsynet tar et helt korrekt, og absolutt nødvendig standpunkt for å sikre at innbyggernes personlige data blir behandlet på en rettferdig og lovlig måte. Det er viktig at selskaper som Meta blir stilt til ansvar, følger regelverket og gir brukerne muligheten til å ta informerte valg når det gjelder deres persondata, som et lite skritt på veien mot å få slutt på innsamling og utnytting av privat informasjon.

Vi støtter helhjertet opp om Datatilsynets arbeid med å håndheve personvernregler og opprettholde individets rettigheter i den digitale sfæren.

Med vennlig hilsen,
Peter N. M. Hansteen
Styreleder, Norwegian Unix User Group (NUUG)

Aug 26, 2023 10:30

August 10, 2023

Petter Reinholdtsen

Invidious add-on for Kodi 20

I still enjoy Kodi and LibreELEC as my multimedia center at home. Sadly two of the services I really would like to use from within Kodi are not easily available. The most wanted add-on would be one making The Internet Archive available, and it has not been working for many years. The second most wanted add-on is one using the Invidious privacy enhanced Youtube frontent. A plugin for this has been partly working, but not been kept up to date in the Kodi add-on repository, and its upstream seem to have given it up in April this year, when the git repository was closed. A few days ago I got tired of this sad state of affairs and decided to have a go at improving the Invidious add-on. As Google has already attacked the Invidious concept, so it need all the support if can get. My small contribution here is to improve the service status on Kodi.

I added support to the Invidious add-on for automatically picking a working Invidious instance, instead of requiring the user to specify the URL to a specific instance after installation. I also had a look at the set of patches floating around in the various forks on github, and decided to clean up at least some of the features I liked and integrate them into my new release branch. Now the plugin can handle channel and short video items in search results. Earlier it could only handle single video instances in the search response. I also brushed up the set of metadata displayed a bit, but hope I can figure out how to get more relevant metadata displayed.

Because I only use Kodi 20 myself, I only test on version 20 and am only motivated to ensure version 20 is working. Because of API changes between version 19 and 20, I suspect it will fail with earlier Kodi versions.

I already asked to have the add-on added to the official Kodi 20 repository, and is waiting to heard back from the repo maintainers.

As usual, if you use Bitcoin and want to show your support of my activities, please send Bitcoin donations to my address 15oWEoG9dUPovwmUL9KWAnYRtNJEkP1u1b.

Aug 10, 2023 17:50

June 16, 2023

Peter Hansteen (That Grumpy BSD Guy)

The Despicable, No Good, Blackmail Campaign Targeting ... Imaginary Friends?

Natalia here speaks to our imaginary friend

In which we confront the pundits' assumption that the embarrasment-based extortion attempts would grow more “sophisticated and credible” over time with real data.

It's a problem that should not exist. 

It's a scam that's so obvious it should not work.

Yet we still see a stream of reports about people who have actually gone out and bought their first bitcoins (or more likely fractions of one) in order to pay off blackmailers who claim to have in their possesion videos that record the vicim while performing some autoerotic activity and the material they were supposedly viewing while performing that activity.

And occasionally one of those messages actually find their way to some pundit's inbox (like yours truly), and at times some of those pundits will say things like that those messages represent a real problem and will evolve to be ever more sophisticated.

Note: This piece is also available, with more basic formatting but with no trackers, here.

I am here to tell you that

  1. That incriminating video does not exist, and
  2. The pundits who predicted that those scams would evolve to become more sophisticated were wrong.

If you stumbled on this article because one of those messages reached you, it's safe to not read any further and please do ignore the extortion attempt.

I wrote a piece in 2019 The 'sextortion' Scams: The Numbers Show That What We Have Is A Failure Of Education, also available without trackers, where the summary is,

Every time I see one of those messages reach a mailbox that is actually read by one or more persons, I also see delivery attempts for near identical messages aimed at a subset of my now more than three hundred thousand spamtraps, also known imaginary friends.

Over the years since the piece was originally written, I have added several updates — generally when some of this nonsense reaches a mailbox I read — and while I have seen the messages in several languages, no real development beyond some variations in wording has happened.

Whenever one of those things does reach an inbox, my sequence of actions is generally to save the message and add it to the archive, see if the sending IP address has already entered the blocklist that is later exported and add it by hand if not. Then check if the number of trapped addesses has swelled recently by checking the log file from the export script

$ tail -n 96 /var/log/traplistcounts

See if there is a sharp increase since the last blocklist export

$ doas spamdb | grep -c TRAPPED

Then check for related activity in the log

$ tail -n 500 -f /var/log/spamd

Check for the full subject in the same log file

$ grep "You are in really big troubles therefore, you much better read" /var/log/spamd

Then check older, archived logs to see how long this campaign has been going on for

$ zgrep "You are in really big troubles therefore, you much better read" /var/log/spamd.0.gz

This time, the campaign had not gone on for long enough to show traces in the older archive, so I go on to extracting the sending IP addresses

$ grep "You are in really big troubles therefore, you much better read" /var/log/spamd | awk '{print $6}' | tr -d ':' | sort -u

Check for activity from one of the extracted addresses

$ grep /var/log/spamd | tee wankstortion/20221123_trapped_183.111.115.4.txt

Extract the sender IP addresses to an environment variable to use in the next oneliner,

$ grep trouble /var/log/spamd | awk '{print $6}' | tr -d ':' | sort -u | grep -vc BLACK | tee -a wankstortion/20221123_campaign_ip_addresses.txt

which will record all activity involving those IP addresses since the last log rotation:

$ for foo in $troubles ; do grep $foo /var/log/spamd | tee -a wankstortion/20221123_campaign_log_extract.txt ; done

You will find all those files, along with some earlier samples, and by the time you read this, possibly even newer samples, in the archive.

When something of the sort inboxes, I probably will go on adding to the archive, and if I have time on my hands, also run similar extraction activities as the ones I just described. But unless something unexpected such as actual development in the senders' methods occurs, I will not bother to write about it.

The subject is simply not worth attention past persuading supposed victims to not bother to get bitcoins or spend any they might have to hand. None of my imaginary friends have, and they are just as fine as they were before somebot tried to scam them.

Good night and good luck.


by Peter N. M. Hansteen (noreply@blogger.com) atJun 16, 2023 12:04

June 13, 2023

Dag-Erling Smørgrav

DNS over TLS in FreeBSD with Quad9

It has come to my attention that Quad9 have a blog post providing incorrect instructions for how to set up a FreeBSD system to use their service. I have attempted to get in touch with the author and get him to correct it but have received no response. So here, for the benefit of the Great Search Engine Gods, is the correct procedure; see my earlier post on the topic for more details on how it works.

# cat >/etc/rc.conf.d/local_unbound <<EOF
local_unbound_forwarders=" 2620:fe::fe@853#dns.quad9.net 2620:fe::9@853#dns.quad9.net"
# service local_unbound setup
# service local_unbound restart

No need to reboot.

Note that if you only have IPv4, you may experience slightly degraded performance unless you leave out the IPv6 addresses from the local_unbound_forwarders line (and vice versa in the unlikely scenario where you only have IPv6).

by Dag-Erling Smørgrav atJun 13, 2023 18:26

May 05, 2023

Salve J. Nilsen

Perl Toolchain Summit 2023 in Pictures

PTS2023 was this time in Lyon, France; Organized primarily by Philippe “BooK” Bruhat and Laurent Boivin. This event wouldn’t be possible without it’s sponsors, Booking.com, Deriv, Grant Street Group, FastMail, cPanel, Perl Careers, MaxMind, Fastly Inc., Perl Maven, OpenCage, Perl Services, Oetiker+Partner, and Procura. Thank you! All pictures in this gallery are ©2023, Salve J. … Continue reading Perl Toolchain Summit 2023 in Pictures

by Salve J. Nilsen atMay 05, 2023 21:30

NIS2 and CRA – EU LAWS that may kill Open Source?

New EU laws are coming that will affect Open Source. Should we worry?

by Salve J. Nilsen atMay 05, 2023 21:08

December 05, 2022

Ole Aamot – GNOME Development Blog

Saving GNU Network Object Model Environment 44 on a Network Service

Consider saving the entire sources of https://download.gnome.org/sources/ by uploading the sources of the latest sources to a Network as a Service entity such as gnomevoice.org.

Printing source code saved GNOME 2.0 after the Red Hat, Inc.’s Power Failure in North Carolina during Winter 1999, as GNOME 1.0 is suddenly lost.

A worldwide power failure should be of our greatest concern at the moment.

Never put all of your eggs in the same basket, was the lesson learnt from open source domains such as sf.net, mozillathunderbird.org, and gphoto.fix.no.

We must also be prepared to save Project GNOME Voice like a Network as a Service.

Copyleft Solutions is the current Network as a Service host of gnomeradio.org and gnomevoice.org.

by oleaamot atDec 05, 2022 07:35

Apology regarding mail.gnome.org

I work on Radio, Gingerblue and Voice, and previously I worked on gPhoto in the GNOME Project since November 1998.

While I have written, always as a non-profit, non-paid volunteer for the GNU and the GNOME project, Radio in 2002-2022, Gingerblue in 2018-2022 and Voice in 2022, and I posted org.gnome.Radio during GUADEC 2022 with criticism for posting it publicly from one significant member of the GNOME community, I have always stood up for common and core GNOME values since I took part at the discussion of the GNOME Foundation at ENST in Paris in March 2000. I joined GNOME in November 1998 (24 years ago) after co-launching and working on the GNU Photo project for digital still photography device support in GNOME in November 1998 that turned into gPhoto in 1999.

I have seen a gradual transition of GNOME services away from people.gnome.org since 2020 that I never spoke up on.

GNOME Foundation’s board of directors agreed to the gradual transition away from the mailing lists years ago, so I doubt they’ll suddenly change tack now. Even I’m familiar with the discussions and plans around this planned change, all though I wasn’t an active GNOME contributor between 2004-2014, I disagreed with the GNOME Foundation.

You can view the historic email archives on mail.gnome.org and the GNOME Foundation list at https://mail.gnome.org/archives/foundation-list/

Where will future GNOME Foundation discussions take place? Most likely on https://discourse.gnome.org.

My experience with this platform is vague. I am more familiar with mail.gnome.org. However, the voting of the GNOME Foundation’s board of directors stands.

mail.gnome.org is going stale after 25 1/2 years of service in the project.

Today I am announcing that I am leaving the GNOME Foundation after 25 years of service and will work further on the gnomeradio.org, gingerblue.org, and gnomevoice.org domains, as well as complete my thesis Public Voice Communication about the software Voice (gnome-voice) at NTNU before June 24th, 2024.

Thesis: Public Voice Communication

by oleaamot atDec 05, 2022 00:00

August 04, 2022

Nicolai Langfeldt

Backup of postgres in a kubernetes pod (and a docker container)

Kubernetes is a lot of things, some cool, some vexsome.

One of the things is that it does not necessarily make it easy to make backups of data stored in pods.  And if the data is a database you can't really back it up from the outside in the data storage mount either since the backup is liable to become inconsistent and unusable. You have to deal with the database engine to get a consistent backup.

At work we have a self hosted kubernetes cluster and quite a bit og old fashioned infrastructure too.  Lately some postgres databases have been deployed here with the bitnami helm chart.

We use automation tools to set up backups and all kinds of things.  And in these tools we prefer not to put passwords if we can avoid it.

One _could_ make a backup using pg_dump or similar giving it the pod IP, username and password, but we'd like to avoid that.

Examining the bitnami postgres pod it was set up quite interestingly with postgres running at uid 1001 which does not have a user account associated. This is apparently to accomodate openshift.  It also makes it quite hard to run psql inside the pod:

$ psql  
psql: local user with ID 1001 does not exist

There are additional things that complicate it.  Studying the github issues for the helm chart I found that the makers of this had a workaround.  After experimenting with kubectl I managed to construct a command that does not require us to put the database password into the backup script:

kubectl exec -n $NAMESPACE $PODNAME -- bash -c ". /opt/bitnami/scripts/libpostgresql.sh && postgresql_enable_nss_wrapper && PGPASSWORD=\$POSTGRES_PASSWORD pg_dump $OPTS -c -U postgres $DB"

The magic is in libpostgresql.sh and the postgresql_enable_nss_wrapper, which makes the user "postgres" defined for the commands that follow.

You have to supply the environment variables NAMESPACE, PODNAME, the optional OPTS for options and DB yourself. POSTGRES_PASSWORD is taken from the deployed pod.

by nicolai (noreply@blogger.com) atAug 04, 2022 11:49

July 21, 2022

NUUG Foundation

Reisestipend - 2022 og 2023

NUUG Foundation utlyser reisestipender for 2022 og 2023. Søknader kan sendes inn til enhver tid.

Jul 21, 2022 13:52

May 20, 2022

Nicolai Langfeldt

Ubuntu 22.04 and their snap love afair - or: how to get rid of snap - or: firefox without snap

Some years ago Ubuntu introduced snap and said it would be better.  In my experience it was slower.

And then they started packaging chromium-browser as a SNAP only, this broke the kde-plasma and kde-connect (media and phone desktop integrations, and I resorted to installing chrome from Google.  This was quite easy because Chrome comes as a .deb package which also installs a apt-source so it's upgraded just like the rest of the system.

This, by the way is the apt source for Chrome, you drop it in e.g. /etc/apt/sources.list.d/google-chrome.list:

deb [arch=amd64] https://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb/ stable main

And then you install the google signing key: 

wget -qO- https://dl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub | sudo tee /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/google-linux-signing-key.asc

Then you can do 'apt update' and 'apt install google-chrome-stable'.  See also https://www.google.com/linuxrepositories/ for further information

Lately I've been using Chrome less and less privately and Firefox more and more due to the privacy issues with Chrome.

In Ubuntu 22.04 they started providing Firefox as a snap.  Again breaking desktop and phone integration, actually I didn't look very hard, it was just gone and I wanted it back.  There are no good apt sources for Firefox provided by the Mozilla project. The closest I could find was Firefox provided by Debian.

Which turned out to work very well, but only thanks to the apt preference system.

You make two files: First /etc/apt/sources.list.d/bullseye.list:

deb http://ftp.no.debian.org/debian/ bullseye main
deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security bullseye-security main
deb http://ftp.no.debian.org/debian/ bullseye-updates main

Then put this in /etc/apt/preferences (I'm in norway, replace "no" with other contry code if you like):

Package: *
Pin: origin "ftp.no.debian.org"
Pin-Priority: 98
Package: *
Pin: origin "security.debian.org"
Pin-Priority: 99
Package: *
Pin: release n=jammy
Pin-Priority: 950

Also you need to install debian repository signing keys for that:

wget -qO- https://ftp-master.debian.org/keys/archive-key-11.asc | sudo tee /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/bullseye.asc
wget -qO- https://ftp-master.debian.org/keys/archive-key-11-security.asc | sudo tee /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/bullseye-security.asc

Then you execute these two in turn: 

apt update
apt install firefox-esr

And you should have firefox without getting any other things from Debian, the system will prefer Ubuntu 22.04 aka Jammy.

Big fat NOTE: This might complicate later release upgrades on your Ubuntu box. do-release-upgrade will disable your Chrome and Bullseye apt-sources, and quite possibly the preference file will be neutralized as well, but if not you might have to neutralize it yourself.

by nicolai (noreply@blogger.com) atMay 20, 2022 20:24

October 10, 2021

Dag-Erling Smørgrav

Automatic Let’s Encrypt certificates in Apache with mod_md

Since 2.4.30, Apache comes with experimental support for ACME certificates (Let’s Encrypt et al.) in the form of mod_md (short for “managed domains”). It’s kind of a pain but it’s still better than what I had before, i.e. a mess of shell and Perl scripts based on Crypt::LE, and if your use case is limited to Apache, it appears to be simpler than Certbot as well. Unfortunately for me, it’s not very well documented and I wasted a considerable amount of time figuring out how to use it. Fortunately for you, I then decided to blog about it so you don’t have to repeat my mistakes.

Edit: the author of mod_md, Stefan Eissing, got in touch and pointed me to his own documentation, which is far superior to the one available from Apache.

My starting point is a freshly installed FreeBSD 13.0 server with Apache 2.4, but this isn’t really OS dependent.

First, you will need mod_ssl (of course) and a session cache, and you will need to tweak the TLS parameters, as the defaults are far from fine.

LoadModule ssl_module libexec/apache24/mod_ssl.so
SSLProtocol +TLSv1.3 +TLSv1.2
SSLHonorCipherOrder off
SSLCompression off

LoadModule socache_dbm_module libexec/apache24/mod_socache_dbm.so
SSLSessionCache dbm:/var/db/httpd_ssl_cache.db

You will also need to load mod_md, of course, and mod_watchdog, which mod_md needs to function.

LoadModule watchdog_module libexec/apache24/mod_watchdog.so
LoadModule md_module libexec/apache24/mod_md.so
MDCertificateAgreement accepted
MDContactEmail acme@example.com

The MDCertificateAgreement directive indicates that you have read and accepted Let’s Encrypt’s subscriber agreement, while MDContactEmail is the email address that you used to sign up to Let’s Encrypt.

You will also need mod_rewrite to redirect HTTP requests to HTTPS and mod_headers for HSTS.

LoadModule rewrite_module libexec/apache24/mod_rewrite.so
LoadModule headers_module libexec/apache24/mod_headers.so

By default, Apache only listens on port 80, so you’ll need an extra Listen directive for port 443.

Listen 443

And as always with Apache, you should probably set ServerName and ServerAdmin to sensible values.

ServerName server.example.com
ServerAdmin www@example.com

Next, set up an HTTP-only virtual host that you can use to check the status of mod_md.

<VirtualHost *:80>
  ServerName localhost
  <Location />
    Require ip ::1
  <Location "/md-status">
    SetHandler md-status

(Once Apache is running, you will be able to query it at any time as http://localhost/md-status.)

On to the actual website. First, you need to tell mod_md to manage certificates for it.

MDomain site.example.com

Next, set up a redirect from HTTP to HTTPS for everything except ACME challenge tokens.

<VirtualHost localhost:80>
  ServerName site.example.com
  RewriteEngine on
  RewriteRule "^/(?!.well-known/acme-challenge)(.*)" https://site.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
  ErrorLog /www/site.example.com/logs/http-error.log
  CustomLog /www/site.example.com/logs/http-access.log combined

And finally, the site itself, including HSTS and strict SNI:

<VirtualHost *:443>
  ServerName site.example.com
  SSLEngine on
  SSLStrictSNIVHostCheck On
  Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15552000; includeSubdomains;"
  DocumentRoot /www/site.example.com/data
  IncludeOptional /www/site.example.com/etc/*.conf
  ErrorLog /www/site.example.com/logs/https-error.log
  CustomLog /www/site.example.com/logs/https-access.log combined

Now start Apache and monitor the error log. You should see something like this pretty quickly:

[Sun Oct 10 16:15:27.450401 2021] [md:notice] [pid 12345] AH10059: The Managed Domain site.example.com has been setup and changes will be activated on next (graceful) server restart.

Once you do as it says (apachectl graceful), your site will be up and running and you can head over to the Qualys SSL Server Test and admire your solid A+.

Download the sample configuration and try it out yourself.

by Dag-Erling Smørgrav atOct 10, 2021 18:19

May 19, 2021

NUUG news

Vet du hva du mister når du bare klikker OK for å komme i gang med å bruke noe?

Retten til privatlivets fred, retten til å reparere og retten til å velge verktøy er sider av samme sak. En ny rettsavgjørelse i Italia kan hjelpe oss å vinne tilbake rettigheter vi ble manipulert til å si fra oss.

Du tenker nok ikke på det så ofte, men om du er en vanlig IT-bruker i et industrialisert land har du sannsynligvis blitt lurt til å si fra deg rettigheter. Dette skjer i et slikt omfang at menneskerettsinteresserte burde være bekymret.

Tenk på når du skal ta i bruk noe du er interessert i, enten det er en datamaskin av noe slag som for eksempel PC, nettbrett eller telefon, eller en nettbasert tjeneste.

La oss først se nærmere på hva som skjer når du får ny datamaskin, nettbrett eller telefon i hus. Noe av det første som skjer etter at du har slått på strømmen for den nye enheten, og helt sikkert før du får mulighet til å bruke dingsen til det du ønsker å gjøre, er at du må godta en juridisk bindende avtale som er utformet av og for de som har produsert utstyret. For å kunne bruke det du har kjøpt, må du godta en avtale som styrer hva du kan bruke enheten til.

I mange tilfeller er det flere slike avtaler som blir presentert, hver med sin egen registrering av om du godtar eller ikke.

Noen av disse avtalene begrenser hva du kan bruke enheten til, mens andre gir leverandøren eller noen som samarbeider med leverandøren lov til å samle inn informasjon om deg og hva du foretar deg med enheten.

Mange av disse ja/nei-spørsmålene gir inntrykk av at du har mulighet til å nekte å godta, men du vil se at du sannsynligvis ikke kommer videre til å ha en gjenstand som er reelt brukbar til tiltenkt bruk før du har godtatt alle disse avtalene.

En av de mest tydelige konsekvensene av COVID 19-krisen er at en større andel av befolkningen ble presset over til nesten helt digital tilværelse, der kommunikasjon både i jobb- og skolesammenheng foregår via digitale enheter og via tjenester som leveres på vilkår av avtaler som er diktert av leverandørene. For noen av oss har tilværelsen vært nær heldigital i en årrekke allerede, men for mange er det en ny situasjon og det går langsomt opp for flere at viktige friheter og rettigheter kan være i ferd med å gå tapt.

Problemstillingen er ikke ny. Mange av oss i IT-miljøer har lenge advart mot at det vi regner som menneskerettigheter eller borgerrettigheter er i ferd med å bli gradvis slipt vekk til fordel for enkelte bedrifter og deres eiere.

Når du slår på en ny datamaskin eller telefon for første gang, blir du sannsynligvis nesten med en gang bedt om å godta en "sluttbrukerlisens" for operativsystemet, altså programvaren som styrer enheten. I sin enkleste form er en lisens et dokument som angir vilkårene for at noen andre enn den som har laget et åndsverk (her programvaren) får tillatelse til å lage eksemplarer av verket. Men i mange tilfeller inneholder lisensdokumentet mer detaljerte og omfattende vilkår. Ofte er lisensavtalen formulert som om du har rett til å avslå å bruke operativsystemet og slette eksemplarer som følger med eller levere tilbake fysiske eksemplarer og få tilbake pengene, men at du kan fortsette å bruke den fysiske maskinen. En del av oss som har kjøpt PCer og annet har vært i stand til å installere et annet system enn det som ble levert med maskinen, og valgt å leve det digitale livet ved hjelp av frie alternativer som for eksempel Linux eller OpenBSD. En del av oss gjør dette for å få mer direkte kontroll over verktøyene vi bruker.

Om vi har forsøkt å få tilbake penger for en ubrukt operativsystemlisens har de fleste av oss aldri klart å få det til. Men det skal vi komme tilbake til.

Om du har klart å installere et fritt alternativ til det operativsystemet som enheten ble levert med, har du slått et slag for retten til å velge verktøy og retten til å reparere og råde over dine egne eiendeler. Men dessverre er ikke dette det eneste punktet i ditt digitale liv der rettighetene dine er i fare.

Uansett om du godtok sluttbrukerlisensen eller ikke, kommer du fort ut for for programvare eller nettbaserte tjenester som presenterer sine egne sluttbrukeravtaler. Det er en stor sjanse for at du bare klikker OK uten å lese vilkårene i avtalen.

Ta gjerne nå en pause for å sjekke hva du faktisk har gått med på. Sannsynligvis finner du at både operativsystemleverandører og sosiale medier-tjenester har fått deg til å gi dem tillatelse til å registrere hva du foretar deg når du bruker systemet eller tjenesten. Ta gjerne tiden til å sjekke alle produkter og tjenester du har registrert deg hos. Det er sannsynlig at ikke bare en, men de aller fleste av de tjenestene og produktene du bruker på en nett-tilkoblet enhet har gitt seg selv retten til å fange inn og lagre data om hva du foretar deg. Hvis du bruker enheten til noe som helst privat eller følsomt, er det verd å se nøye etter hvilke konsekvenser disse avtalene har for din rett til privatliv og beskyttelse av privatsfæren.

På papiret (om vi skal uttrykke oss gammeldags) har vi som bor i EU og EØS-land rett til å få utlevert data som er lagret om oss og eventuelt få rettet feil eller til og med få slettet data i samsvar med EUs personvernforordning (GDPR). Hvis det du fant ut mens du sjekket avtalene mens du tok pause fra å lese denne teksten gjør deg usikker eller bekymret er det god grunn til å ta i bruk retten til innsyn, utlevering, retting eller sletting. Om du ikke får meningsfylt svar, ta kontakt med Datatilsynet eller Forbrukertilsynet, som bør stå klare til å hjelpe.

Men hva så med retten til å reparere eller retten til å velge verktøy? Jo, også på det feltet er det grunn til håp. Etter en omfattende prosess kom nemlig en domstol i Italia frem til at ikke bare hadde en Linux-entusiast rett til å installere Linux på sin nye Lenovo-datamaskin, slik at kunden også hadde rett til å refundert prisen for operativsystemet som ikke ville bli brukt. Og siden Lenovo hadde prøvd å ikke etterleve sine forpliktelser som var angitt i sluttbrukerlisensen som ble presentert for kunden, ble de ilagt en bot på 20 000 Euro.

En slik rettsavgjørelse er ikke direkte presedensskapende for andre europeiske land, og det finnes avgjørelser i andre land som ikke ga kunden medhold i at operativsystem og datamaskin kunne behandles som separate varer. Vi i den norske Unix-brukergruppen (Norwegian Unix User Group - NUUG) deltar nå i et samarbeid som koordineres av Free Software Foundation Europe (FSFE) for å forsvare og styrke din og min rett til privatliv, rett til å reparere og rett til å velge verktøy for å styre vår digitale tilværelse.

Hvis noe av det du nå har lest bekymrer deg, gjør deg forvirret, sint eller bare engasjert for å styrke våre borger- og menneskeretter i den digitale tilværelsen vil vi bli glade for å høre fra deg.

Peter N. M. Hansteen
Styreleder i Norwegian Unix User Group (NUUG)

Den italienske rettsavgjørelsen som gir oss håp er beskrevet på FSFEs nettsted: Refund of pre-installed Windows: Lenovo must pay 20,000 euros in damages

An English version is available as Are you aware what you lose by just clicking OK to get started using something?

May 19, 2021 16:13

May 31, 2018

Kevin Brubeck Unhammer

Kan samisk brukes i det offentlige rom?

Hvis vi hadde laget et program som oversatte fra norsk til samisk, ville resultatet ha vært en samisk som er minst like dårlig som den norsken vi er i stand til å lage nå. Norsk og samisk er grammatisk sett svært ulike, og det er vanskelig å få til god samisk på grunnlag av norsk. Et slikt program vil føre til publisering av en hel masse svært dårlig samisk. En situasjon der mesteparten av all samisk publisert på internett kommer fra våre program fortoner seg som et mareritt. Det ville rett og slett ha ødelagt den samiske skriftkulturen.

Sjå kronikken: https://www.nordnorskdebatt.no/samisk-sprak/digitalisering/facebook/kan-samisk-brukes-i-det-offentlige-rom/o/5-124-48030

by unhammer atMay 31, 2018 09:00

February 13, 2017

Mimes brønn

En innsynsbrønn full av kunnskap

Mimes brønn er en nettjeneste som hjelper deg med å be om innsyn i offentlig forvaltning i tråd med offentleglova og miljøinformasjonsloven. Tjenesten har et offentlig tilgjengelig arkiv over alle svar som er kommet på innsynsforespørsler, slik at det offentlige kan slippe å svare på de samme innsynshenvendelsene gang på gang. Du finner tjenesten på


I følge gammel nordisk mytologi voktes kunnskapens kilde av Mime og ligger under en av røttene til verdenstreet Yggdrasil. Å drikke av vannet i Mimes brønn ga så verdifull kunnskap og visdom at den unge guden Odin var villig til å gi et øye i pant og bli enøyd for å få lov til å drikke av den.

Nettstedet vedlikeholdes av foreningen NUUG og er spesielt godt egnet for politisk interesserte personer, organisasjoner og journalister. Tjenesten er basert på den britiske søstertjenesten WhatDoTheyKnow.com, som allerede har gitt innsyn som har resultert i dokumentarer og utallige presseoppslag. I følge mySociety for noen år siden gikk ca 20 % av innsynshenvendelsene til sentrale myndigheter via WhatDoTheyKnow. Vi i NUUG håper NUUGs tjeneste Mimes brønn kan være like nyttig for innbyggerne i Norge.

I helgen ble tjenesten oppdatert med mye ny funksjonalitet. Den nye utgaven fungerer bedre på små skjermer, og viser nå leveringsstatus for henvendelsene slik at innsender enklere kan sjekke at mottakers epostsystem har bekreftet mottak av innsynshenvendelsen. Tjenesten er satt opp av frivillige i foreningen NUUG på dugnad, og ble lansert sommeren 2015. Siden den gang har 121 brukere sendt inn mer enn 280 henvendelser om alt fra bryllupsutleie av Operaen og forhandlinger om bruk av Norges topp-DNS-domene .bv til journalføring av søknader om bostøtte, og nettstedet er en liten skattekiste av interessant og nyttig informasjon. NUUG har knyttet til seg jurister som kan bistå med å klage på manglende innsyn eller sviktende saksbehandling.

– «NUUGs Mimes brønn var uvurderlig da vi lyktes med å sikre at DNS-toppdomenet .bv fortsatt er på norske hender,» forteller Håkon Wium Lie.

Tjenesten dokumenterer svært sprikende praksis i håndtering av innsynshenvendelser, både når det gjelder responstid og innhold i svarene. De aller fleste håndteres raskt og korrekt, men det er i flere tilfeller gitt innsyn i dokumenter der ansvarlig etat i ettertid ønsker å trekke innsynet tilbake, og det er gitt innsyn der sladdingen har vært utført på en måte som ikke skjuler informasjonen som skal sladdes.

– «Offentlighetsloven er en bærebjelke for vårt demokrati. Den bryr seg ikke med hvem som ber om innsyn, eller hvorfor. Prosjektet Mimes brønn innebærer en materialisering av dette prinsippet, der hvem som helst kan be om innsyn og klage på avslag, og hvor dokumentasjon gjøres offentlig. Dette gjør Mimes Brønn til et av de mest spennende åpenhetsprosjektene jeg har sett i nyere tid.» forteller mannen som fikk åpnet opp eierskapsregisteret til skatteetaten, Vegard Venli.

Vi i foreningen NUUG håper Mimes brønn kan være et nyttig verktøy for å holde vårt demokrati ved like.

by Mimes Brønn atFeb 13, 2017 14:07

July 15, 2016

Mimes brønn

Hvem har drukket fra Mimes brønn?

Mimes brønn har nå vært oppe i rundt et år. Derfor vi tenkte det kunne være interessant å få en kortfattet statistikk om hvordan tjenesten er blitt brukt.

I begynnelsen av juli 2016 hadde Mimes brønn 71 registrerte brukere som hadde sendt ut 120 innsynshenvendelser, hvorav 62 (52%) var vellykkede, 19 (16%) delvis vellykket, 14 (12%) avslått, 10 (8%) fikk svar at organet ikke hadde informasjonen, og 12 henvendelser (10%; 6 fra 2016, 6 fra 2015) fortsatt var ubesvarte. Et fåtall (3) av hendvendelsene kunne ikke kategoriseres. Vi ser derfor at rundt to tredjedeler av henvendelsene var vellykkede, helt eller delvis. Det er bra!

Tiden det tar før organet først sender svar varierer mye, fra samme dag (noen henvendelser sendt til Utlendingsnemnda, Statens vegvesen, Økokrim, Mediatilsynet, Datatilsynet, Brønnøysundregistrene), opp til 6 måneder (Ballangen kommune) eller lenger (Stortinget, Olje- og energidepartementet, Justis- og beredskapsdepartementet, UDI – Utlendingsdirektoratet, og SSB har mottatt innsynshenvendelser som fortsatt er ubesvarte). Gjennomsnittstiden her var et par uker (med unntak av de 12 tilfellene der det ikke har kommet noe svar). Det følger av offentlighetsloven § 29 første ledd at henvendelser om innsyn i forvaltningens dokumenter skal besvares «uten ugrunnet opphold», noe som ifølge Sivilombudsmannen i de fleste tilfeller skal fortolkes som «samme dag eller i alle fall i løpet av 1-3 virkedager». Så her er det rom for forbedring.

Klageretten (offentleglova § 32) ble benyttet i 20 av innsynshenvendelsene. I de fleste (15; 75%) av tilfellene førte klagen til at henvendelsen ble vellykket. Gjennomsnittstiden for å få svar på klagen var en måned (med unntak av 2 tillfeller, klager sendt til Statens vegvesen og Ruter AS, der det ikke har kommet noe svar). Det er vel verdt å klage, og helt gratis! Sivilombudsmannen har uttalt at 2-3 uker ligger over det som er akseptabel saksbehandlingstid for klager.

Flest henvendelser var blitt sendt til Utenriksdepartementet (9), tett etterfulgt av Fredrikstad kommune og Brønnøysundregistrene. I alt ble henvendelser sendt til 60 offentlige myndigheter, hvorav 27 ble tilsendt to eller flere. Det står over 3700 myndigheter i databasen til Mimes brønn. De fleste av dem har dermed til gode å motta en innsynshenvendelse via tjenesten.

Når vi ser på hva slags informasjon folk har bedt om, ser vi et bredt spekter av interesser; alt fra kommunens parkeringsplasser, reiseregninger der statens satser for overnatting er oversteget, korrespondanse om asylmottak og forhandlinger om toppdomenet .bv, til dokumenter om Myanmar.

Myndighetene gjør alle mulige slags ting. Noe av det gjøres dÃ¥rlig, noe gjør de bra. Jo mer vi finner ut om hvordan  myndighetene fungerer, jo større mulighet har vi til Ã¥ foreslÃ¥ forbedringer pÃ¥ det som fungerer dÃ¥rlig… og applaudere det som  bra.  Er det noe du vil ha innsyn i, sÃ¥ er det bare Ã¥ klikke pÃ¥ https://www.mimesbronn.no/ og sÃ¥ er du i gang 🙂

by Mimes Brønn atJul 15, 2016 15:56

June 01, 2016

Kevin Brubeck Unhammer

Maskinomsetjing vs NTNU-eksaminator

Twitter-brukaren @IngeborgSteine fekk nyleg ein del merksemd då ho tvitra eit bilete av nynorskutgåva av økonomieksamenen sin ved NTNU:

Dette var min økonomieksamen på "nynorsk". #nynorsk #noregsmållag #kvaialledagar https://t.co/RjCKSU2Fyg
Ingeborg Steine (@IngeborgSteine) May 30, 2016

Kreative nyvinningar som *kvisleis og alle dialektformene og arkaismane ville vore usannsynlege å få i ei maskinomsett utgåve, så då lurte eg på kor mykje betre/verre det hadde blitt om eksaminatoren rett og slett hadde brukt Apertium i staden? Ingeborg Steine var så hjelpsam at ho la ut bokmålsutgåva, så då får me prøva 🙂


Ingen kvisleis og fritt for tær og fyr, men det er heller ikkje perfekt: Visse ord manglar frå ordbøkene og får dermed feil bøying, teller blir tolka som substantiv, ein anna maskin har feil bøying på førsteordet (det mangla ein regel der) og at blir ein stad tolka som adverb (som fører til det forunderlege fragmentet det verta at anteke tilvarande). I tillegg blir språket gjenkjent som tatarisk av nettsida, så det var kanskje litt tung norsk? 🙂 Men desse feila er ikkje spesielt vanskelege å retta på – utviklingsutgåva av Apertium gir no:


Det er enno eit par småting som kunne vore retta, men det er allereie betre enn dei fleste eksamenane eg fekk utdelt ved UiO …

by unhammer atJun 01, 2016 09:45

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